A Study of Teachers’ Strategies in Providing Feedback in English Writing Class

  • Nazmillah Nazmillah UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta
  • Didin Nuruddin Hidayat UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta
  • Maya Defianty UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta
  • Anita Anita UIN Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin Banten
  • Abdul Muin UIN Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin Banten
Keywords: English, feedback, Writing class


Feedback is a crucial aspect of the writing process. Feedback includes comments and suggestions to facilitate students to revise their assignments. The comments and suggestions can guide the students to revise and also support students in improving their ability, especially in writing. This study aims to find out the teacher's perspective about feedback in the writing activity in writing class and how teachers provide feedback on the student's writing activities in the writing class at an English Education Department in a university Jakarta. The method used in this research is the descriptive qualitative method. The subject of this research was the three lecturers who taught writing classes. The instruments used in this study were interviews and documents. The result shows that the role of feedback on the writing activity in writing class is important based on the data obtained. Lecturers use the combination of indirect-direct feedback and also the combination of oral and written feedback. Teachers use the feedback according to the class’s condition and the goal of the level of writing. The combination of oral and written, direct, and indirect feedback complements each other.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Nazmillah Nazmillah, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta

Nazmillah is a student at Department of English Education, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta

Maya Defianty, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta

Maya is a senior lecturer at Department of Englsih Education, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta

Anita Anita, UIN Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin Banten

Anita is a senior lecturer and Head Department of Englsih Education, UIN Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin Banten

Abdul Muin, UIN Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin Banten

Abdul Muin is Head of Language Center and senior lecturer at Department of English Education, UIN Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin Banten


Adhabi, E. A. R., & Anozie, C. B. L. (2017). Literature Review for the Type of Interview in Qualitative Research. International Journal of Education, 9(3), 86–97. https://doi.org/10.5296/ije.v9i3.11483
Adrefiza, A., Hidayat, D. N., & Fortunasari, F. (2021). Students’ voices on lecturers’ Written Corrective Feedback (WCF) in their Writing tasks. Indonesian Journal of English Education, 8(1), 10–23.
Aggraini, D. (2018). Students Perspective Toward Teacher’s Written Corrective Feedback on Students’ Writing in Paragraph Writing Class. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa1407279
Akmilia, T. D., Purnawarman, P., & Rodliyah, R. S. (2017). Self-Directed Feedback: an Attempt Towards Learner Autonomy in Writing. Indonesian EFL Journal, 1(1), 48–57. https://doi.org/10.25134/ieflj.v1i1.613
Ashrafi, S., & Foozunfar, M. (2018). The effects of oral, written feedback types on EFL learners’ written accuracy: The relevance of learners’ perceptions. Proceedings of the 2nd National Conference on English Language Studies: Applied Linguistics Perspectives on EFL, May, 2–22. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.10968.60169/1
Cahyono, B., & Amrina, R. (2016). Peer Feedback, Self-correction, and Writing Proficiency of Indonesian EFL Students. Arab World English Journal, 7(1), 178–193. https://doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol7no1.12
Chen, W. (2018). The Effects of Corrective Feedback Strategies on English Majors’ Writing. English Language Teaching, 11(11), 55. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v11n11p55
Diab Rula, L. (2015). Error Correction and Feedback in the EFL Writing Classroom. English Teaching Forum.
Evans, C. (2013). Making Sense of Assessment Feedback in Higher Education. Review of Educational Research, 83(1), 70–120. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654312474350
Fareed, M., Ashraf, A., & Bilal, M. (2016). ESL Learners’ Writing Skills: Problems, Factors and Suggestions. Journal of Education & Social Sciences, 4(2), 83–94. https://doi.org/10.20547/jess0421604201
Ferris, D. R. (1997). The Influence of Teacher Commentary on Student Revision. TESOL Quarterly, 31(2), 315–339. https://doi.org/10.2307/3588049
Gielen, S., Peeters, E., Dochy, F., Onghena, P., & Struyven, K. (2010). Improving the effectiveness of peer feedback for learning. Learning and Instruction, 20(4), 304–315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.08.007
Göçen, G. (2019). The effect of creative writing activities on elementary school students’ creative writing achievement, writing attitude and motivation*. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 15(3), 1032–1044. https://doi.org/10.17263/jlls.631547
Han, Y., & Hyland, F. (2015). Exploring learner engagement with written corrective feedback in a Chinese tertiary EFL classroom. Journal of Second Language Writing, 30, 31–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2015.08.002
Hyland, K., & Hyland, F. (2006). Feedback on second language students’ writing. Language Teaching, 39(2), 83–101. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444806003399
Kang, E., & Han, Z. (2015). The efficacy of written corrective feedback in improving L2 written accuracy: A meta-analysis. Modern Language Journal, 99(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12189
Keh, C. L. (1990). Feedback in the writing process: A model and methods for implementation. ELT Journal, 44(4), 294–304. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/44.4.294
Kim, H., Sefcik, J. S., & Bradway, C. (2017). Characteristics of Qualitative Descriptive Studies: A Systematic Review. Research in Nursing and Health, 40(1), 23–42. https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.21768
Klimova, B. (2015). The Role of Feedback in EFL Classes. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 199, 172–177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.07.502
Küçükali, E. (2017). The Effect of Oral vs . Written Feedback in EFL Writing. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 4(7), 47–67.
Kuyyogsuy, S. (2019). Promoting Peer Feedback in Developing Students’ English Writing Ability in L2 Writing Class. International Education Studies, 12(9), 76–90. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v12n9p76
Lambert, V. a., & Lambert, C. E. (2013). Qualitative Descriptive Research: An Acceptable Design. Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research, 16(4), 255–256.
Lee, I. (2003). How Do Hong Kong English Teachers Correct Errors in Writing? Education Journal-Hong Kong-Chinese …, 31(1), 153–169.
Lee, Icy. (2007). Feedback in Hong Kong secondary writing classrooms: Assessment for learning or assessment of learning? Assessing Writing, 12(3), 180–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2008.02.003
Mahfoozifard, S., & Mehdiabadi, F. (2016). The Effect of Direct VS . Indirect Feedback on the Speaking Accuracy of Iranian Learners at Elementary Level of Proficiency. International Journal of Basic Sciences & Applied Research, 5(2), 99–105.
Milles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative Data Analysis (Third Edit). SAGE Publications, Inc.
Nassaji, H. (2015). Qualitative and descriptive research: Data type versus data analysis. Language Teaching Research, 19(2), 129–132. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168815572747
Nelson, M. M., & Schunn, C. D. (2009). The nature of feedback: How different types of peer feedback affect writing performance. Instructional Science, 37(4), 375–401. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-008-9053-x
Nematzadeh, F., & Siahpoosh, H. (2017). The Effect of Teacher Direct and Indirect Feedback on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners’ Written Performance. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Learning, 2017(5), 110–116. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.jalll.20170305.02
Rahman, M. N. (2017). Incorporating Different Forms of Feedback in Teaching Writing: An Insight into a Real Classroom. BELTA Journal, 1(1), 64–82. https://doi.org/10.36832/beltaj.2017.0101.04
Rahmatunisa, W. (2014). Problems Faced By Indonesian Efl Learners in Writing Argumentative Essay. English Review: Journal of English Education, 3(1), 1–9.
Ramírez Balderas, I., & Guillén Cuamatzi, P. M. (2018). Self and peer correction to improve college students’ writing skills. Profile: Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 20(2), 179–194. https://doi.org/10.15446/profile.v20n2.67095
Rao, V. C. S., & Durga, M. V. S. (2018). Developing Students ’ Writing Skills in English-A Process Approach. Journal for Research Scholars and Professionals of Engleish Language Teaching, 2(6), 1–6.
Ratnawati, R., Faridah, D., Anam, S., & Retnaningdyah, P. (2018). Exploring Academic Writing Needs of Indonesian EFL Undergraduate Students. Arab World English Journal, 9(4), 420–432. https://doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol9no4.31
Ravand, H., & Rasekh, A. E. (2011). Feedback in ESL Writing: Toward an Interactional Approach. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(5), 1136–1145. https://doi.org/10.4304/jltr.2.5.1136-1145
Razali, R., & Jupri, R. (2014). Exploring Teacher Written Feedback and Student Revisions on ESL Students’ Writing. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(5), 63–70. https://doi.org/10.9790/0837-19556370
Sofi, M. J. (2011). Study on Teacher ’ S Ways of Giving Feedback in the Class of Writing At the 3 Rd Semester Students of English Department of Iain Walisongo in the Academic Year of 2010 / 2011 Faculty of Tarbiyah State Institute for Islamic Studies Walisongo.
Susan, B. M. (2008). Affective feedback. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Tehrani, F. A. (2018). Feedback for Writing or Writing for Feedback?. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 14(4), 162–178.
Toba, R., Noor, W. N., & Sanu, L. O. (2019). The Current Issues of Indonesian EFL Students’ Writing Skills: Ability, Problem, and Reason in Writing Comparison and Contrast Essay. Dinamika Ilmu, 19(1), 57–73. https://doi.org/10.21093/di.v19i1.1506
Trisnaningrum, Y., Alek, A., & Hidayat, D. N. (2019). Discourse Analysis of Grammatical Cohesion Devices in college students’ academic writing essay. IJEE (Indonesian Journal of English Education), 6(1), 79–90. https://doi.org/10.15408/ijee.v6i1.12502
Wahyuni, S. (2017). The Effect of Different Feedback on Writing Quality of College Students with Different Cognitive Styles. Dinamika Ilmu, 17(1), 39–58.
Wilson, J., & Czik, A. (2016). Automated essay evaluation software in English Language Arts classrooms: Effects on teacher feedback, student motivation, and writing quality. Computers and Education, 100, 94–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.05.004
Wulandari, A. S. (2017). An Analysis of Teacher’s Corrective Feedback in Writing Skills at Eight Grade Students of MTsN Suberlawang in Academic Year 2016/2017.
Ying, Z. (2018). Exploring Construction of College English Writing Course from the Perspective of Output-Driven Hypothesis. English Language Teaching, 11(2), 188–192. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v11n2p188
Zaid, M. A. (2011). Effects of web-based pre-writing activities on college EFL students’ writing performance and their writing apprehension. Journal of King Saud University - Languages and Translation, 23(2), 77–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksult.2011.04.003
How to Cite
Nazmillah, N., Hidayat, D., Defianty, M., Anita, A., & Muin, A. (2022, June 1). A Study of Teachers’ Strategies in Providing Feedback in English Writing Class. Acitya: Journal of Teaching and Education, 4(2), 339-356. DOI: https://doi.org/10.30650/ajte.v4i2.3258
Language Teaching, Literature, Linguistic & English for Specific Purpose